I/o Psychology Implementation

Industrial & Organization Psychology
Industrial and Organization Psychology, known as I/O Psychology, is the scientific study of employees, workplaces, and organizations. Industrial and organizational psychology contributes to an organization's success by improving the work setting and the performance, satisfaction and well-being of its people. At Lighthouse Recruiting we focus on Human Capital and Organizational Behavior allowing us to assess competencies, knowledge, social and personality attributes. We research and identify how employee behaviors and attitudes can be improved through hiring practices, training programs, feedback and management systems. Here are some of the programs we address within our I/O Psychology services.
Job Analysis
Job analysis is often described as the cornerstone of successful employee selection efforts and performance management initiatives. A job analysis involves the systematic collection of information about a job. Job-analytic methods are often described as belonging to one of two approaches. [1] One approach, the task-oriented job analysis, involves an examination of the duties, tasks, and/or competencies required by a job. The second approach, a worker-oriented job analysis, involves an examination of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics required to successfully perform the work. These two approaches are not mutually exclusive. Various adaptations of job-analytic methods include competency modeling, which examines large groups of duties and tasks related to a common goal or process, and practice analysis, which examines the way work is performed in an occupation across jobs. [2]
Performance Appraisal
Performance appraisal or performance evaluation is the process of measuring an individual's work behaviors and outcomes against the expectations of the job. Performance appraisal is frequently used in promotion and compensation decisions, to help design and validate personnel selection procedures, and for performance management. Performance management is the process of providing performance feedback relative to expectations and improvement information (e.g., coaching, mentoring). Performance management may also include documenting and tracking performance information for organization-level evaluation purposes. [1]
Individual Assessment
Individual assessment involves the measurement of individual differences. I-O psychologists perform individual assessments in order to evaluate differences among candidates for employment as well as differences among employees. The constructs measured pertain to job performance. [1] With candidates for employment, individual assessment is often part of the personnel selection process. These assessments can include written tests, physical tests, psychomotor tests, personality tests, work samples, and assessment centers[2].
Motivation in the Workplace
Motivation is a positive drive that enables a person to reach a set goal. In a workplace, the manager or supervisor has to know the needs or drive of an individual, and motivate according to it. In an organization, when an employee is doing good job or production is increased by him, he must be rewarded with respect to his needs.
Organizational Culture
Organizational culture can be described as a set of assumptions shared by the individuals in an organization that directs interpretation and action by defining appropriate behavior for various situations. There are three levels of organizational culture: Artifacts, Shared Values, Basic Beliefs and Assumptions. Artifacts comprise the physical components of the organization that relay cultural meaning. Shared values are individuals' preferences regarding certain aspects of the organization's culture (e.g. loyalty, customer service). Basic beliefs and assumptions include individuals' impressions about the trustworthiness and supportiveness of an organization, and are often deeply ingrained within the organization's culture. Organizational culture has been shown to have an impact on important organizational outcomes such as performance, attraction, recruitment, retention, employee satisfaction, and employee well-being. Also, organizations with an adaptive culture tend to perform better than organizations with an unadaptive culture.
Group Behavior
Group Behavior is the interaction between individuals of a collective and the processes such as opinions,attitudes, growth, feedback loops, and adaptations that occur and change as a result of this interaction. The interactions serve to fulfill some need satisfaction of an individual who is part of the collective and helps to provide a basis for his interaction with specific members of the group. A specific area of research in group behavior is the dynamics of teams. Team effectiveness refers to the system of getting people in a company or institution to work together effectively. The idea behind team effectiveness is that a group of people working together can achieve much more than if the individuals of the team were working on their own.
Productive Behavior
Productive behavior is defined as employee behavior that contributes positively to the goals and objectives of an organization. When an employee begins a new job, there is a transition period during which he or she is not contributing positively to the organization. To successfully transition from being an outsider to a full-fledged member of an organization, an employee typically needs job-related training as well as more general information about the culture of the organization. In financial terms, productive behavior represents the point at which an organization begins to achieve some return on the investment it has made in a new employee. There are three common forms of productive behavior in organizations: job performance, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and innovation.
Leadership
Leadership is a process of influencing and supporting and motivating others to work enthusiastically or effectively towards achieving the objectives or goal. A leader acts as a catalyst, who identifies the potential of a worker and tries to put that into reality. A leader can be a positive leader or a negative leader. A leader’s influence within an organization or group has been said to stem from two primary sources, that person’s personal characteristics and their position within the organization. Personal power, also made up of two factors called expert power and referent power, is derived from elements like an individual’s personality, their knowledge base, their ability to effectively interact with others, and their demonstrated level of effort. Positional power, also often referred to as legitimate power, is derived from the leader’s position within the organization, and the authority imbued in them either directly or indirectly by the organization’s controlling parties to provide either rewards or sanctions for performance.
Counterproductive Work Behavior
Counterproductive work behavior can be defined as employee behavior that goes against the goals of an organization. These behaviors can be intentional or unintentional and result from a wide range of underlying causes and motivations. It has been proposed that a person-by-environment interaction can be utilized to explain a variety of counter-productive behaviors. For instance, an employee who steals from the company may do so because of lax supervision (environment) and underlying psychopathology (person) that work in concert to result in the counterproductive behavior.
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